Hokku up to the time of Shiki, even when appearing independently, were written in the context of renku. Being agnostic ,  he also separated it from the influence of Buddhism. Further, he discarded the term "hokku" and proposed the term haiku as an abbreviation of the phrase " haikai no ku " meaning a verse of haikai ,  although the term predates Shiki by some two centuries, when it was used to mean any verse of haikai. Shiki's revisionism dealt a severe blow to renku and surviving haikai schools.
The term "hokku" is now used chiefly in its original sense of the opening verse of a renku, and rarely to distinguish haiku written before Shiki's time. Haibun is a combination of prose and haiku, often autobiographical or written in the form of a travel journal. Haiga is a style of Japanese painting based on the aesthetics of haikai , and usually including a haiku.
Today, haiga artists combine haiku with paintings, photographs and other art. The city of Matsuyama has more than two hundred kuhi. The earliest westerner known to have written haiku was the Dutchman Hendrik Doeff — , who was the Dutch commissioner in the Dejima trading post in Nagasaki, during the first years of the 19th century. Although there were further attempts outside Japan to imitate the "hokku" in the early 20th century, there was little understanding of its principles.
One of the first advocates of English-language hokku was the Japanese poet Yone Noguchi. In "A Proposal to American Poets," published in the Reader magazine in February , Noguchi gave a brief outline of the hokku and some of his own English efforts, ending with the exhortation, "Pray, you try Japanese Hokku, my American poets! In France, haiku was introduced by Paul-Louis Couchoud around Couchoud's articles were read by early Imagist theoretician F.
Amy Lowell made a trip to London to meet Pound and find out about haiku. She returned to the United States where she worked to interest others in this "new" form. Haiku subsequently had a considerable influence on Imagists in the s, notably Pound's " In a Station of the Metro " of , but, notwithstanding several efforts by Yone Noguchi to explain "the hokku spirit", there was as yet little understanding of the form and its history. Blyth was an Englishman who lived in Japan. In , with the publication in Japan of the first volume of Haiku , the four-volume work by Blyth, haiku were introduced to the post-war English-speaking world.
This four-volume series —52 described haiku from the pre-modern period up to and including Shiki.
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Blyth's History of Haiku in two volumes is regarded as a classical study of haiku. Today Blyth is best known as a major interpreter of haiku to English speakers. His works have stimulated the writing of haiku in English. The book includes both translations from Japanese and original poems of his own in English, which had previously appeared in his book titled A Pepper-Pod: Classic Japanese Poems together with Original Haiku. In these books Yasuda presented a critical theory about haiku, to which he added comments on haiku poetry by early 20th-century poets and critics.
His translations apply a 5—7—5 syllable count in English, with the first and third lines end-rhymed. Yasuda considered that haiku translated into English should utilize all of the poetic resources of the language. This notion of the haiku moment has resonated with haiku writers in English, even though the notion is not widely promoted in Japanese haiku. Henderson was published by Doubleday Anchor Books. After World War II, Henderson and Blyth worked for the American Occupation in Japan and for the Imperial Household , respectively, and their shared appreciation of haiku helped form a bond between the two.
How to Write a Haiku Poem (with Sample Poems) - wikiHow
Henderson translated every hokku and haiku into a rhymed tercet a-ba , whereas the Japanese originals never used rhyme. Unlike Yasuda, however, he recognized that 17 syllables in English are generally longer than the 17 on of a traditional Japanese haiku. Because the normal modes of English poetry depend on accentual meter rather than on syllabics, Henderson chose to emphasize the order of events and images in the originals.
English haiku can follow the traditional Japanese rules, but are frequently less strict, particularly concerning the number of syllables and subject matter. The loosening of traditional standards has resulted in the term "haiku" being applied to brief English-language poems such as "mathemaku" and other kinds of pseudohaiku.
Some sources claim that this is justified by the blurring of definitional boundaries in Japan. Elsewhere the Ecuadorian poet and diplomat Jorge Carrera Andrade included haiku among the 31 poems contained in Microgramas Tokio  and the Argentine Jorge Luis Borges in the collection La cifra In Lusophone Portuguese-speaking Brazil, after several early false starts, including a collection of 56 by Waldomiro Siqueira Jr. Since Modernism, several anthologies of Brazilian haikai have been published.
Did You Know?
In the early 20th century, Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore composed haiku in Bengali. He also translated some from Japanese. In Gujarati , Jhinabhai Desai 'Sneharashmi' popularized haiku  and remained a popular haiku writer. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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This article is about the Japanese poetic form. For haiku poetry written in English, see Haiku in English. For other uses, see Haiku disambiguation. Main article: Kireji.
Main article: On Japanese prosody. Main article: Kigo. Main articles: Renga and Renku. Main article: Yosa Buson. Main article: Kobayashi Issa. Main article: Masaoka Shiki. Main article: Haibun. Main article: Haiga. Main article: Reginald Horace Blyth. Main article: Kenneth Yasuda. Main article: Harold G.
Examples of Haiku Poems
Main article: Haiku in English. Haiku East and West. Bochum: Universitatsverlag Brockmeyer. Chrystopher L. Berlin: Springer. March 1, Retrieved April 20, Simply Haiku. Retrieved 9 April A Parte Rei in Spanish 37 : 8. In its original Japanese form, the haiku is often divided into 17 mora a Japanese unit of syllable weight and arranged in a single vertical line. However, in English there is no exact equivalent to the mora unit.
As a result, in English and other languages, haikus are most frequently adapted into three lines of verse, usually unrhymed, composed of five, seven, and five syllables, adding up to seventeen syllables total.
However, many American poets, such as Jack Kerouac , began to gradually depart from this traditional syllable and line count, in favor of depicting images as succinctly as possible. Despite its many adaptions into multiple languages and styles, the haiku remains a powerful form due to its economic use of language to evoke a specific mood or instance. Notice how, in translating from Japanese to English, Hirshfield compresses the number of syllables. The haiku continues to be a popular form today, and its different qualities have been emphasized and expanded by a wide variety of writers.
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