Globalizatsiya i Sotrudnichestvo Religiy. Vyzovy i Perspectivy McLean G.
Globalization and Collaboration of Religions. The experts unanimously agree this multi-faceted similarity is not a result of mere coincidence, but is rather the fruit of contacts, in which an exchange of experience between the spiritual traditions has occurred. Indeed, for several centuries Islamic and Orthodox Christian traditions developed side-by-side, in close vicinity with one another in the area of active ethno-cultural contacts between the Byzantine and Islam civilizations.
However, in tracing the roots of symbiosis it is extremely hard to uncover the actual mechanisms and course of events which produced the fruitful exchange. It is often difficult to determine the direction of translation: from which tradition to which were the details of the spiritual practice translated? On such questions the experts, even the most competent ones, have divergent opinions. It a law is in effect here, which could be expressed as follows: the more important the influence, the more concealed.
The example discussed in the preceding paragraph demonstrates vividly the difference between the phenomena of spiritual tradition and religious tradition historical religion. In medieval civilization the relations between the religions were inseparable from state, political, and military relations.
And so, while an encounter between Christian and Muslim spiritual traditions was taking place in the depths, in the historical proscenium were bloody ChristianMuslim wars. This example shows convincingly that a dialogue of spiritual traditions can play a positive role in inter-religious dialogue, and it suggests that contemporary strategies for contacts and dialogue between Christianity and Islam should focus more on dialogue between the spiritual traditions at the core of these religions. These words find the full confirmation in the fact that we have seen, in recent years, active dialogue between Islam and Eastern Orthodoxy developing within the general framework of Islamic-Christian dialogue.
Regular connection and contacts have been established between the Inter-Parliamentary Assembly of Orthodoxy and the Parliamentary Union of the Organization Islamic Conference. Such conferences and meetings formulate the tasks facing us in developing improved relations, and they take fully into account the spiritual and existential dimensions of both religions.
Cooperation was never cut off, and its importance increases today whenever believers work towards putting knowledge and power at the service of man, the vice-regent 9 Ignatius IV, Patriarch of Antioch and All the East. Orthodoxy and Issues of Our Time. On the spiritual level, there is a striking resemblance between Christian Hesychasm and Islamic dhikr Christians and Muslims have interacted at all levels, there has been a mutual influence in ways of life and rituals, and they experienced an almost common awareness of God the Most High.
As in the East the Sacred Text has been widely used by the local powers for the purposes of both inner and foreign politics. Gryaznevich and S. Prozorov Moscow, , pp.
For details see: Rezvan E. A number of victorious wars against Ottoman Turkey and the subsequent annexation of the Crimea in , along with other regions with a Muslim population, demanded urgent measures in the organization of their administration and in the pacification of the new subjects. The Novokreshchensky Office, founded by personal decree of the Russian Empress Anna Ioannovna — to conduct missionary activities among Muslims, had done too little to meet Russian state interests in that period.
In a muftiyat was founded in the Russian fortress of Ufa. Within six years, the Orenburg Mohammedan Religious Council was created and Muslim clerics for the first time received the official status of a religious estate similar to the Orthodox Church. Mosques began to be built, including one in Moscow , and Muslim religious schools were opened at that time also. The Anapaevskaya, Akhundovskaya, and Amirkhanovskaya madrasas were successfully opened in Kazan, the first two in and the third in Many Tatar murzas and Bashkir elders were accepted into the nobility dvorianstvo in , and Muslim merchants were granted privileges in their trade with Turkestan, Iran, India, and China.
At the same time, an order was issued to construct mosques at state expense. His blueprint for the Arabic typeface differs from all other Arabic typefaces which had previously been employed in Russia and was superior to the Arabic typefaces which then existed in European presses4.
Petersburg edition consists of pages plus a one-page list of errata. Thirteen corrections are given; the errors involve diacritics, not letters. The errata are given in Tatar. Kruming for kindly drawing our attention to this. Zimmermann Between and Profits from sales came to 12, rubles at a single-copy cost of six rubles, five kopecks.
The first purely commercial European edition intended for distribution in the Muslim East, that of Paganini Brixiensis Paganino de Bresla , Venice, , failed in both respects. It was destroyed as a result of incompetence, and not because of the dismal atmosphere of the Catholic Counter-Reformation, as is commonly held. For details see: Borrmans M. Strika Naples. On the whole, however, the Empress kept on with her policy of aiding the noticeable growth of central power in the outlying Muslim regions of the Empire.
By the decree of 15 December , restrictions on the publication of Islamic religious literature were lifted in Russia. In , the Arabic typeface of the St.
My Pilgrimage to Jerusalem / Mое паломничество в Иерусалим
Petersburg press was transferred to Kazan, where one year earlier, at the request of the Kazan Tatars, the Asiatic press had been established at the Kazan gymnasium7. In , the press was united with the university press; and until nearly it was in fact the only press with the right to publish Muslim religious literature. In the opinion of R. This was a unique attempt to draw closer to a critical edition; an attempt subsequently repeated in a number of Eastern reprints. The matter was referred to the Committee of ministers for review Introduction au Coran.
Bibliotheca Arabica. Koran v Rossii. Istoriograficheskie ocherki. Koranausgaben in Russichen Buchdruck ded 18 Jahrhunderts. The Committee of ministers decided stopping the printing of Muslim books in Kazan would hand the initiative in the sale of such books to the English and lead to contraband within Russia.
The Committee saw no direct connection between the increased printing of Muslim books and the re-adoption of Islam by baptized Tatars. By the mid-nineteenth century, Kazan, the main centre of Russian Muslim life, had become one of the major intellectual capitals of Islam, and in a number of areas competed with such cities as Istanbul, Cairo, and Beirut.
This process was aided by the high educational level of the indigenous population and the ideas of religious and political rebirth which had engulfed not only the upper levels of the Muslim intelligentsia but also the broad masses. The expansion of Russia into Central Asia was accompanied by the active penetration of the region by Tatar merchants and commercial capital. The products of Kazan printing-presses were among the main goods sold in the book markets of Bukhara, Samarqand, and Tashkent. Russian pilgrims brought them to the Hijaz and they were used in the houses built with Russian money in Mecca for Russian Muslims.
In the context of this policy, the Bolsheviks decided to return to Muslims a number of sacred objects held in Orenburg, Kazan, in Central Asia, and in the Caucasus. Petersburg Public Library. The translation was fully prepared for publication in , but was never published since then. It was secretly kept for decades by his daughter Fatima despite the real danger of the Communist regime persecutions.
This translation is an important relic for all Russian Muslims. Petersburg 11 Ibid.
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Fyodorova, first publication, author's personal photo-collection. His first works appeared in St. Petersburg Muslim periodicals. He also collaborated with the influential Orenburg journal Waqt, which printed lectures on the history of religion delivered by Bigiev in at the Orenburg Husayniyya madrasa. Later Bigiev received the post of imam-khatib at the St. Petesburg mosque. He was secretary of the third Muslim Congress in Nizhni Novgorod, in , and author of the political program Ittifaq al-Muslimin, based on the aforementioned congress.
Bigiev welcomed the fall of the monarchy in Russia and was one of the organizers of the All-Russian Muslim Congress in Moscow, in After the Bolshevik coup, while still in Petrograd, Bigiev for a time supported cooperation with the new regime. In , he emigrated to Finland, from where he embarked on travels throughout the Muslim world.
Bigiev died in Cairo in and according to the emigrant reports was buried there in the royal cemetery. Seeing the translation published was the dream of Fatima, daughter of Musa Jarallah, who unfortunately died recently. The publication, which is currently under preparation, will be the best monument to the memory of Musa Bigi and the whole generation of brilliant Russian Muslim scholars and public figures killed by the Bolshevik revolution, civil war, and Stalin terror.